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给药:口服药 (Medication Administration: Oral)

  1. Perform hand hygiene.
  2. Verify correct patient using two identifiers.
  3. Take medications to patient at correct time. Identify patient using two identifiers (i.e., name and birthday or name and account number, according to institutional policy). Compare these identifiers with the information on patient’s identification bracelet. Ask patient to state name. Check name on patient’s identification bracelet. Replace any missing or faded identification bracelets.
  4. Explain purpose of each medication and its action to patient. Allow patient to ask any questions about medications.
  5. Assist patient to a seated or side-lying position if sitting is contraindicated by patient’s condition.
  6. For tablets, offer water or juice to help patient swallow medications. Some patients may wish to hold solid medications in hand or cup before placing in mouth.
  7. For orally disintegrating formulations (tablets or strips), remove medication from blister packet just before use and place medication on top of patient’s tongue.
  8. For sublingual-administered medications, have patient place medication under tongue and allow it to dissolve completely.
  9. For buccal-administered medications, have patient place medication in mouth against mucous membranes until it dissolves.
  10. For powdered medications, mix with liquids at bedside, and give to patient to drink.
  11. Caution patient against chewing or swallowing lozenges.
  12. Give effervescent powders and tablets immediately after dissolving.
  13. If patient is unable to hold medications, place medication cup to the lips and gently introduce each medication into the mouth, one at a time. Do not rush.
  14. Stay until patient completely swallows each medication. Ask patient to open mouth if uncertain whether medication has been swallowed.
  15. For highly acidic medications (e.g., aspirin), offer patient a nonfat snack (e.g., crackers) if not contraindicated by patient’s condition.
  16. Assist patient in returning to comfortable position.
  17. Discard used supplies and perform hand hygiene.
  18. Document administration on MAR.
Last Reviewed: August 2009

Excerpted and adapted from Perry AG, Potter PA: Clinical nursing skills & techniques, ed 7, St. Louis, 2010, Mosby.
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